Zinc (Zn) – is a necessary plant nutrient. It belongs to classic micronutrients. It is necessary for normal growth and development of many crops. The zinc content in plants reaches 0.002% of dry matter and usually ranges from 10-30 mg/kg (dry matter).
One of the first who studied importance of zinc for plants was Timiryazev K.A. in 1872. Later in 1914, Mazet showed that normal development of corn is impossible without this element. In his experiments, the disease of this culture called white bud was cured after application of zinc fertilizers, which also prevented its appearance. Currently, there are about 50 species of cultivated plants, for which zinc is a necessary nutrition component. Zinc is present in plants in the form of cation Zn+2, partly in a bound form. It is an integral part of more than 20 enzymes.
In addition, it participates in chlorophyll biosynthesis; zincprotoporphyrin, its precursor, was found in leaves. This element does not participate in photosynthesis directly; however, it is part of enzyme carbonic anhydrase, the supposed role of which is release of CO2 from carbonic acid formed after carbon dioxide dissolving in water. The released CO2 i s i nvolved i n t he p rocess o f p hotosynthesis.
Having a stabilizing effect on the processes of respiration with temperature fluctuations, zinc increases heat and cold resistance. Even from the mentioned above can we conclude about the importance of zinc for processes of respiration and photosynthesis. The effect of zinc on phosphoric metabolism is also known. With its deficiency, the process of phosphorus utilization is disturbed; the process of transformation of inorganic phosphates into organic ones is inhibited. By activating the enzyme tryptophan synthetase, zinc indirectly affects auxin biosynthesis. Amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of this phytohormone. Zinc fertilizers used for foliar applications are an indispensable element of the cultivation program for many crops (for instance, corn). Their use is the key to high yields.
• Prevention and treatment of microelementosis diseases caused by zinc deficiency (witches’ broom of large fruit, etc.)
• High efficiency of zinc fertilizing with a maximum degree of absorption
• Increased resistance to various abiotic stresses and effects (heat, dry winds, drought, low temperatures, etc.)
• Activation of production and accumulation of proteins and fats
• Increased yield of various crops by 10–21%
• Improved yield quality (cereals, bean crops, oilseeds and fodder crops)
• Optimization of processes of respiration and photosynthesis under adverse and stressful conditions
• Improved development of regenerative organs, increased pollen fertility (increased amount of germinated grains, elongation of pollen tubes)